Publications by ADVENTURE Partners

[1]
S. Zöller, M. Wachtel, F. Knapp, and R. Steinmetz, “Going All the Way – Detecting and Transmitting Events with Wireless Sensor Networks in Logistics,” in Proceedings of the 8th IEEE LCN International Workshop on Practical Issues in Building Sensor Network Applications (IEEE SenseApp 2013), Sydney, Australia, 2013, pp. 39–47.
The logistics domain constitutes a promising application area for wireless sensor network technology. Wireless sensor nodes can be deployed for example in containers or trucks' load areas to monitor environmental parameters relevant to the condition of transported goods in real time. Exploiting their computation and communication capabilities, wireless sensor nodes can locally detect the occurrence of critical situations, so-called events, and send corresponding alarm messages to responsible decision makers via the network and corresponding gateway nodes in real time. Within this paper, we present a fully working solution and corresponding prototypical implementation of how such real-time monitoring and event detection can be realized in a context-dependent and user-specific way. As such a system requires transmitting alarm messages and sensor data from the wireless sensor network deployment to users' backend systems, we furthermore explore means to interconnect wireless sensor nodes and smartphones. In particular, we present findings from field tests concerning the link quality of such connections for different technological approaches for which we realized prototypical implementations.

[2]
S. Zöller, C. Vollmer, M. Wachtel, R. Steinmetz, and A. Reinhardt, “Data Filtering for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Forecasting and Value of Information,” in Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), Sydney, Australia, 2013, pp. 441–449.
Energy constitutes a scarce resource in wireless sensor networks, making energy-efficient operation mandatory. Data transmission has been identified as one of the most energy consuming operations. Consequently, different approaches to reduce data transmissions have been proposed, like data filtering. Recently, the value of information of sensor data has been identified for data filtering, explicitly incorporating application-specific and context-dependent information needs. The filtering is done according to the benefit a data transmission would induce at the recipient. We propose an on-mote filtering approach, which relies on local multi-step assessment of sensor data with forecasting and assessing value of information. We apply our approach to logistics transport processes and evaluate it concerning number of data transmissions and energy efficiency. Our simulation results showed that with our approach the number of data transmissions and the energy consumption can be reduced by over 25\% to over 60\%, while simultaneously accounting for user-specific information desires.

[3]
S. Zöller, R. Hans, D. Schuller, U. Lampe, and R. Steinmetz, “Integrating Smart Objects as Data Basis in Virtual Enterprise Collaborations,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference Interoperability for Enterprise Systems and Applications (I-ESA), Albi, France, 2014, pp. 297–305.
Small and Medium Enterprises of the manufacturing domain have to cope with a highly competitive market today. To establish flexible and efficient collaborations with partners in such an environment, new collaboration concepts and corresponding IT architectures are required, such as Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises. Therefore, we provide in this paper an overview of a generic IT architecture for realizing collaborations within Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises. However, besides an adequate IT architecture, a sound and up-to-date data basis is an essential necessity for inter-company collaborations to be successful. Smart Objects constitute a promising technology to gather and transmit a huge diversity of different process-relevant data in real time and can thus act as valuable data source in order to achieve such a comprehensive and up-to-date data basis. In consequence, we describe in this paper how Smart Object technology can be employed and integrated in our architecture for Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises in order to enable efficient data provisioning in such collaboration scenarios.

[4]
D. Burgstahler, F. Knapp, S. Zöller, T. Rückelt, and R. Steinmetz, “Where is That Car Parked? A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Approach to Detect Car Positions,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Practical Issues in Building Sensor Network Applications (IEEE SenseApp 2014), Edmonton, Canada, to be published.
The global trend of increased urbanization makes space rare in city environments in general and for parking in particular. In addition, cars become bigger and often use more than one parking space. As a result neighboring parking spaces can be affected by a parked car. So, a basically free parking space might be too narrow for an arriving car depending on the arriving car’s size. Therefore, means to detect car positions on parking spaces in a fine granular way are required to detect such situations and avoid inefficient parking space searches. Wireless sensor networks provide the possibility to sense the exact occupation of a parking space and potential influences on neighboring parking spaces. However, current solutions focus only on the detection if a parking space is occupied or not. In our work, we present a sensor deployment and a machine learning-based approach able to provide the mentioned more fine-granular detection level. We have conducted an extensive real-world evaluation of our solution, in particular considering different characteristics of today’s car bodies. In our tests, our approach achieved an accuracy of more than 98%.

[5]
T. Hildebrandt, J. Mangler, and S. Rinderle-Ma, “Something doesn’t sound right: Sonification for monitoring business processes in manufacturing,” in LABEM 2014 : 1st International Workshop: Lowering the Adoption Barrier of Enterprise Modelling, Geneva, Switzerland, 2014.
In manufacturing processes a problem during production, such as a e.g. a broken machine, can lead to a standstill and thus to a loss in revenue or even to a contractual penalty. Monitoring staff in manufacturing and in other industries therefore usually observe their business processes with systems that present process-related events and data by using different types of data visualization. This has several drawbacks, e.g. that either users cannot efficiently perform other tasks while observing their monitoring application, or in case they look at their screens only infrequently, that they risk to miss potentially time-critical events or alerts. Therefore we propose to combine current visual-based process monitoring systems with techniques from the area of sonification (the presentation of data using sound). Many factories already contain auditory alerts and alarms, but these usually do not convey a lot of information and are often considered to be obtrusive and distracting. We developed a sonification framework that can receive events from execution engines and preprocess and sonify them according to user-defined settings and filters. Different sonification prototypes for both, event-based and quantitative data (such as KPIs), have been developed and discussed during a focus group meeting with users and scientists from the domain of industrial management and production monitoring.

[6]
G. Pavlov, A. Manafov, I. Pavlova, and V. Manafov, “Holistic, Scalable and Semantic Approach at Interoperable Virtual Factories,” in Proceedings of the I-ESA Conferences, Albi, France, 2014.
In their attempts to support the collaboration between businesses in global context the Virtual Factories face interoperability challenges. The paper presents an approach to address the problem, applying advanced technologies and techniques for implementing interoperable Data Provisioning and Discovery services to support Virtual Factories lifecyle. This work is part of the FP7 EU project ADVENTURE (ADaptive Virtual ENterprise ManufacTURing Environment). KEY WORDS: Adaptive and Distributed Virtual Factories, Interoperability, Manufacturing, Business collaboration

[7]
G. Pavlov, A. Manafov, I. Pavlova, and V. Manafov, “Interoperable Data Provisioning and Discovery for Virtual Factories,” in Advances in Sustainable and Competitive Manufacturing Systems: 23rd International Conference on Flexible Automation & Intelligent Manufacturing, Porto, Portugal, 2013, vol. 1, pp. 401–414.
New generations of collaboration software services supporting Networked Enterprises and Virtual Factories, based on the easily accessible communication facilities, are developed in order to foster the globalization of the business. Still the Interoperability Problem appears to be a bottleneck for their effective functioning. The solution of the problem is of a major importance for their wide adoption. The paper is provides an insight of how the problem was examined and addressed in the project ADVENTURE’s Data Provisioning and Discovery services. This work is part of the FP7 EU project ADVENTURE (ADaptive Virtual ENterprise ManufacTURing Environment).

[8]
S. Kabicher-Fuchs, J. Mangler, and S. Rinderle-Ma, “Experience Breeding in Process-Aware Information Systems,” in Advanced Information Systems Engineering, C. Salinesi, M. C. Norrie, and Ó. Pastor, Eds. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013, pp. 594–609.

[9]
Shamsuzzoha, A. and Helo, P., “Virtual enterprise architectural framework: collaboration for small and medium enterprises,” in Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC2013), Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 2013, pp. 1–8.
This paper presents a methodological approach to support the running of a temporary collaborative network through the formation and operation of a virtual enterprise (VE), where the participating enterprises, especially small and medium size enterprises (SMEs), collaborate with each other for mutual benefit. Overall VE architectural framework which is considered as the baseline to execute VE manufacturing processes is highlighted in this re-search. Different components within this architecture such as visualization and configuration, message exchange, process designer, forecasting and simulation, optimization, cloud-based data storage, etc., are briefly explained with respect to their corresponding interfaces with each other. Among all the components of VE architecture, the user interface component termed ‘Dashboard’ is explicitly highlighted with a case example of a VE network. This Dashboard component is implemented to visualize the VE operational activities that directly contribute to monitor and manage the associated collaborative processes successfully. Further research potential along with the general research outcomes are also highlighted in the conclusion section of this paper.

[10]
Hao, Y., Shamsuzzoha, A. and Helo, P., “Designing of cloud-based virtual factory information system,” in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Flexible Automation & Intelligent Manufacturing (FAIM2013), Porto, Portugal, 2013, pp. 415–426.
In the manufacturing industry, customers’ requirements vary all the time, a way that to increase capacity and add capabilities of factories without in-vesting in new infrastructure becomes essential. An advanced information management system to share valuable information and knowledge among collaborative factories is demanded. The concept of “Cloud” can encom-passes subscription-based or pay-per-use service that, in real time over the Internet, extends factories existing capabilities. Cloud Storage can be used to share data is a flexible manner. With such perspective, a cloud-based Virtual Factory Information System (CloudVFIS) design is proposed in this research. This new system will provide a concrete tool for SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) to realize the integration of factories based on the idea of Virtual Factory. In this paper, the CloudVFIS architectural framework and the cloud storage in manufacturing management are illustrated.

[11]
Shamsuzzoha, A., Ferreira, F., Azevedo, A. and Helo, P., “Business Process Monitoring and Management in Virtual Enterprise through Interactive User Interface Layer,” in Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Flexible Automation & Intelligent Manufacturing (FAIM2013), Porto, Portugal, 2013, pp. 451–464.
This research provides mechanisms that facilitate to monitor and manage of Virtual Enterprise (VE) collaborative business processes in an efficient and effective way. First, it shows a self-contained process monitoring tool specification that contains the following main functionalities: events capturing from a workflow engine, business activity monitoring, process analytics and monitoring rules definition and evaluation. An interactive user interface layer in the form of dashboard is then highlighted within the scope of this research with the objective to monitor the VE operational processes. The dashboard will be the integration platform for a set of components that allow the establishment and operation of VE successfully. This platform enables a seamless integration of business processes and provides an end-to-end ICT solution among the VE member organizations. The work presented in this paper is developed within the scope of the European Commission NMP priority of the Seventh RTD Framework Programme for the ADVENTURE (ADaptive Virtual ENterprise ManufacTURing Environment) project.

[12]
Shamsuzzoha, A., Abels, S. and Helo, P. , “Adaptive virtual enterprise process management: perspective of cloud-based data storage,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2013), Angers Loire Valley, France, 2013, pp. 88–94.
This paper presents research outcomes on formation and operation management of virtual enterprises (VE). A VE is considered as a temporary alliance of manufacturing companies with the objective to exploit fast-changing business opportunities and to meet demands of globalized markets. In the operational phase of the VE, its collaborative member companies - which are geographically distributed and organizationally independent, cooperate with each other to execute different essential business processes. Keeping this business objective in mind, this paper proposes an integration framework of VE, where necessary data exchange and management among the partner companies are monitored and controlled by the help of cloud-based data repository system. The cloud-based data storage system which provides the necessary data storage and retrieval facilities to execute the VE processes is elaborated within this research scope. A case example is also presented that highlights required interfacing and adaptation of the essential VE business processes with the help from cloud-based data storage and retrieval system.

[13]
T. Hildebrandt and S. Rinderle-Ma, “Toward a Sonification Concept for Business Process Monitoring,” in 19th International Conference on Auditory Display (ICAD 2013), Lodz, Poland, 2013, pp. 323–330.
Real-time monitoring of business processes poses several challenges, many of which (like observing process executions and at the same time focusing on other tasks) cannot be tackled with state-of-the-art, visualization-based process monitoring systems. Due to the inherent characteristics of process execution data - it is by definition time-based and sequential - as well as to the typical mode of monitoring business processes (in parallel to other tasks), sonification seems to be the perfect fit to enhance current visualization-based process monitoring with sonification. Therefore, this paper firstly tries to build a foundation by analyzing the task of business process monitoring as well as the data structure of process execution data. Based on these results, existing research that analyzes the usage of sonification techniques for data of similar structure is being studied in order to come to a list of recommendations that can serve as a guideline when building sonifications based on similar data. These recommendations are then being applied to the domain at hand and serve as an input for a first concept of a sonification-based business process monitoring system.

[14]
T. Hildebrandt, “Towards Enhancing Business Process Monitoring with Sonification,” in Intl. Workshop on Theory and Applications of Process Visualization (TAProViz 2013), Berlin, Germany, 2013.
State-of-the-art business process monitoring systems usually base on different types of real-time visualizations, in which data is typically presented using various graphical elements such as speedometers. However, these systems have several drawbacks, such as the inability to constantly monitor process executions while at the same time working on other things. This is why this paper proposes to enhance visual process monitoring with techniques from the area of sonification (the presentation of data using sound). Even though sonification has already successfully been evaluated in several domains for real-time monitoring, there is so far no comprehensive research for its usage in business process monitoring. This paper proposes sonification techniques and user interactions that can be implemented in future applications.

[15]
R. Hans, S. Zöller, S. Abels, A. Miede, and R. Steinmetz, “Enabling Collaboration in Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises with Cloud Computing,” in Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS 2013), Chicago, 2013, pp. 1–10.
In our globalized world, in particular Small and Medium Enterprises of the manufacturing domain face serious challenges, such as constantly shorter product life cycles and strong competition with companies from low-cost countries. To remain competitive in this environment, efficient collaboration with partner enterprises is a necessity. Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises are a viable means to realize such collaboration, but usually require expert knowledge for developing and maintaining a suitable infrastructure for all partners. In this paper, we present a generic Information Technology (IT) architecture for realizing Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises. Further, we show how cloud computing can be employed and integrated to enable efficient data provisioning as basic building block for collaboration in Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises. With the proposed architecture and technologies, Small and Medium Enterprises are capable to easily form Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises, and hence, are enabled to quickly react to changing market requirements and increase their competiveness.

[16]
R. Hans, D. Dahlen, S. Zöller, D. Schuller, and U. Lampe, “Enabling Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises with Cloud Computing – An Analysis of Criteria for the Selection of Database as a Service Offers,” in Advances in Sustainable and Competitive Manufacturing Systems, Porto, 2013, pp. 427–438.
In our globalized world, small- and medium-sized enterprises in the manufacturing domain face a highly competitive environment. They are subject to various challenges, such as very short product life cycles and a strong price competition with companies from low-cost countries. To remain competitive in such an environment, new forms of collaborations, like Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises, are required. An essential part of virtual organisations is data provisioning. Thereby, data from various sources like factories’ ERP systems or data provided by sensors need to be processed and stored. In this context, data storage is a crucial architectural element that influences both functional aspects and competitive aspects, especially costs, of Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises. For realizing Virtual Manufacturing Enterprises with low up-front investments, the application of new technologies, such as Cloud Computing, is required. For storage of information in databases, Database as a Service offers from the Cloud can be exploited. However, since there is a huge amount of providers acting on a non-transparent market, it is difficult to find appropriate “Database as a Service” offerings. To overcome this problem, we provide a criteria catalogue for the selection of providers and their services. Further, we show how different offers, which at the first glance look very similar, could cause very different expenses. With our work, we simplify the selection and evaluation of Cloud storage providers and provide an evaluation of current Cloud storage service offers.

[17]
R. Hans, M. Zahn, U. Lampe, and A. Papageorgiou, “Energy-efficient Web Service Invocation on Mobile Devices: The Influence of Compression and Parsing,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Mobile Services (MS 2013), Stanta Clara, 2013, pp. 1–6.
In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the number of smartphone applications, many of which rely on Web services as key building blocks. Unfortunately, the use of such applications and services requires substantialamounts of energy, which is specifically problematic in the context of battery-constrained mobile devices. In this paper, we examine the potential for energy-efficient mobile service consumption through fine-grained experiments. Our results indicate that energy savings of up to 21.5% may be achieved through the sophisticated use of compression, while the choice of an appropriate parsing strategy may yield savings of up to 53.4%. The results of our work facilitate the development of more energy-efficient, service-based mobile applications.

[18]
S. Zöller, C. Vollmer, M. Wachtel, R. Steinmetz, and A. Reinhardt, “Data Filtering for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Forecasting and Value of Information (accepted for publication),” in Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), 2013.

[19]
S. Zöller, M. Wachtel, F. Knapp, and R. Steinmetz, “Going All the Way -- Detecting and Transmitting Events with Wireless Sensor Networks in Logistics (accepted for publication).,” in Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), 2013.

[20]
S. Zöller, A. Reinhardt, M. Wachtel, and R. Steinmetz, “Integrating Wireless Sensor Nodes and Smartphones for Energy-Efficient Data Exchange in Smart Environments,” in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE PerCom International Workshop on Smart Environments and Ambient Intelligence (SENAmI), San Diego, CA, USA, 2013, pp. 652–657.
To effectively exploit the potential of smart environments, an energy-efficient data exchange between the smart environment infrastructure and its users is necessary. Usually, a major building block of smart environments are different sensors, which typically communicate making use of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Opposed to this, users in a smart environment are nowadays most often equipped with smartphones, which do not support IEEE 802.15.4-based communication, but offer other standards for wireless local communication, like Bluetooth. Consequently, a major challenge in this context is the efficient integration of wireless sensor network and smartphone technology to provide users with smart environment data in a seamless fashion in real-time. To realize the necessary interconnection of sensors deployed in a smart environment and users’ smartphones, different possibilities exist, which can basically be divided in extending sensors to support the communication standards offered by smartphones, or vice versa. We analyze different integration possibilities in this context and realize them prototypically. Based on real-world measurements, we evaluate the energy-efficiency of the different approaches, in particular providing a comprehensive analysis of their energy consumption.

[21]
J. Pflug and S. Rinderle-Ma, “Dynamic Instance Queuing in Process-Aware Information Systems,” in ACM 28th Symposium on Applied Computing, USA, 2013.
Reducing the processing time of instances at critical activities is essential for many application domains. We refer to an activity as being critical if due to restricted resources assigned to the activity, the arrival of a certain number of process instances might lead to a waiting queue. So far, queuing has been adopted for process optimization in a merely static manner, i.e., the strategy in which order the instances are processed from the queue is fixed. We argue that determining the processing strategy for instance queues at runtime (dynamic queuing) offers the potential to reduce the processing time at critical activities. The core idea is that instances arriving at critical activities are first clustered based on similar features and are then distributed to dynamic queues accordingly. The decision on the processing order for the resulting queues requires a state management for allocating the appropriate number of resources during runtime. For this, a configurable performance index is used. The proposed dynamic queuing approach is prototypically implemented and evaluated based on a realistic data set.

[22]
Ralph Vigne, Juergen Mangler, Erich Schikuta, and Stefanie Rinderle-Ma, “WS-Agreement based Service Negotiation in a Heterogeneous Service Environment,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Service Oriented Computing & Applications (SOCA 2012), Taipei, Taiwan, 2012.
With the ever increasing importance of web services and the Cloud as a reliable commodity to provide business value as well as consolidate IT infrastructure, electronic contracts have become very important. WS-Agreement has itself established as a well accepted container format for describing such contracts. However, the semantic interpretation of the terms contained in these contracts, as well as the process of agreeing to contracts when multiple options have to be considered (negotiation), are still pretty much dealt with on a case by case basis. In this paper we address the issues of diverging contracts and varying contract negotiation protocols by introducing the concept of a contract aware marketplace, which abstracts from the heterogeneous offers of different services providers. This allows for the automated consumption of services solely based on preferences, instead of additional restrictions such as understanding of contract terms and/or negotiation protocols. We also contribute an evaluation of several existing negotiation concepts/protocols. We think that reducing the complexity for automated contract negotiation and thus service consumption is a key for the success of future service and Cloud infrastructures.

[23]
Rojas, Evelyn, Barros, Ana, Azevedo, Américo, and Batocchio, Antonio, “Business Model Development for Virtual Enterprises,” presented at the 13th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2012, Bournemouth, UK,, 2012, pp. 624–634.
Virtual Enterprise is one form of collaborative networks that allows partners to exploit emerging business opportunities in a flexible way. Moreover, in the competitive landscape of the twenty-first century, the business model innovation has become increasingly a key element for companies’ positioning in the market. Consequently, this paper aims at proposing a set of business model elements to be used by a virtual enterprise in order to explore a new business opportunity for its network. Literature review is used to identify the business model elements and evidence from a pilot case study confirms that these elements are considered in practice.

[24]
S. Schulte, D. Schuller, R. Steinmetz, and S. Abels, “Plug-and-Play Virtual Factories,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 78–82, 2012.
Although virtual factories are a well-established approach to managing distributed, cross-organizational manufacturing processes, corresponding end-to-end IT support is still lacking. Service-oriented virtual factories use and extend well-known methods and technologies from service-oriented computing, the Internet of Things, and business process management to establish, manage, monitor, and adapt virtual factories in a plug-and-play-like fashion.

[25]
M. Leitner, J. Mangler, and S. Rinderle-Ma, “Definition and Enactment of Instance-spanning Process Constraints,” in Web Information System Engineering - WISE 2012 - 13th International Conference, 2012.

[26]
D. Schuller, Ulrich Lampe, J. Eckert, R. Steinmetz, and S. Schulte, “Cost-driven Optimization of Complex Service-based Workflows for Stochastic QoS Parameters,” in 2012 IEEE 19th International Conference on Web Services, Waikiki, Hawaii, 2012, pp. 66–74.
The challenge of optimally selecting services from a set of functionally appropriate ones under Quality of Service (QoS) constraints – the Service Selection Problem – has been extensively addressed in the literature based on deterministic parameters. In practice, however, Quality of Service QoS parameters rather follow a stochastic distribution. In the work at hand, we present an integrated approach which addresses the Service Selection Problem for complex workflows in conjunction with stochastic Quality of Service parameters. Accounting for penalty cost which accrue due to Quality of Service violations, our approach reduces the impact of stochastic QoS behavior on total cost significant

[27]
S. Zöller, A. Reinhardt, and R. Steinmetz, “Distributed Data Filtering in Logistics Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Transmission Relevance,” presented at the The 37th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN 2012).

[28]
Shamsuzzoha, A. and Helo, P., “Virtual Enterprise Management to Enhance the Manufacturing Process Collaboration,” in Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing (FAIM2013), Helsinki, Finland, 2012.
Due to recent economical recession globally exerted extra pressure to the manufacturing companies and urges to optimize their operational processes via digital tools and systems. Current practices within companies are not suitable enough to tackle such organizational and managerial challenges. To sustain within this complex business environment, companies need to collaborate in order to enhance and optimize their operational processes. The concept of virtual enterprise (VE) can offer an integrated solution approach, where the real enterprises/companies can collaborate with each other virtually for achieving mutual benefits. Virtual enterprise promotes remote collaboration and communication for collaborative tasks among the real factories with the objective to achieve competitive advantage. The VE controls the entire production and logistics areas of manufacturing companies by providing real time information exchange among the manufacturing processes. This information exchange is done by implementing information and communication technology (ICT) players that supports flexibility and interoperability among the collaborative enterprise entities. This research is focused on the overall challenges or visions of the manufacturing companies, especially for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs), which consequently provides an ICT-based affordable solution approach to mitigate such challenges successfully. The overall framework to establish a VE is proposed in this paper for the intrinsic benefits of the manufacturing companies, especially for SMEs.

[29]
Georgi Pavlov, Atanas Manafov, Irena Pavlova, and Velimir Manafov, “An ‘Adventurous’ Approach towards Virtual Entrepreneurship,” in Proceedings of Fifth International Conference for Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Regional Development ICEIRD 2012, Sofia, Bulgaria, 2012.
In the recent years the utilization of Internet services as a widespread mean for doing business is considerably growing, influenced by several factors, namely - exchanging business information via Internet became an everyday human practice, the time for information exchange and processing is drastically reduced, information services are now easily accessible and at low cost, people awareness and skills in using Internet are growing constantly and the business is ambitious to achieve higher levels of competitive power. Further, Virtual Factories and Networked Enterprises are now a well-established concept that tries to foster the business development, especially for SMEs (Small and Medium Size Enterprises). The current solutions in the area however, are still limited in scope at business and technological level. They lack appropriate means for provisioning and processing real-time information, needed for the efficient involvement of these enterprises in global cross-company distributed production processes. This concerns not only the static information about their products and manufacturing capabilities, usually published on their web sites, but also the dynamic information in terms of current capacity and resource availability. Current technologies do not answer adequately to the strong requirements of reliable end-to-end cross partner interoperability of ICT systems and to easily fuse dispersed assets such as processes, information, status and other resources. Thus a separate SME is not able to influence global production processes neither with passive participation nor with active entrepreneurship. In order to cope with the demand for improved flexibility and fast-paced business innovation, there is a need for a more integrated approach, which is able to establish, manage, monitor, and adapt Virtual Factories. In the above context, the paper is introducing and studying an innovative methodology and framework to support plug-and-play Virtual Factories based on cross-organizational manufacturing processes. This work is a part of the FP7 EU project ADVENTURE (ADaptive Virtual ENterprise ManufacTURing Environment). The focus is mainly on realizing the needed tools and methods for data provisioning and discovery to support the ad-hoc involvement of SMEs in Virtual Supply Chain networks and also to enable these SMEs to manage such networks in the role of entrepreneurs.

[30]
M. Leitner, J. Mangler, and S. Rinderle-Ma, “SPRINT- Responsibilities: Design and Development of Security Policies in Process-aware Information Systems,” Journal of Wireless Mobile Networks, Ubiquitous Computing, and Dependable Applications (JoWUA), vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1–24, Dec. 2011.